C++ is a widely used, general-purpose programming language. An extension of the C programming language, C++ is commonly used as a compiled language (as opposed to an interpreted language) and can be used on many different platforms.
A call option contract gives an investor the right, but not the obligation, to purchase an underlying security at a specified price within a defined period of time. When the option expires, the investor can choose to buy the underlying security or let the options contract become void. Call options are traded on exchanges as a derivative, and can be used for speculation, income, or trading strategies like hedging.
A call provision on a bond or other fixed-income investment product is an option allowing the issuer to repurchase and retire the bond. The call may be triggered by a set price, or may be limited by a specific time period. A bond with a call provision pays a higher interest rate than a noncallable bond.
Candlesticks are part of a charting methodology employed by stock and cryptocurrency investors that shows historical and real-time prices of a specific asset. Candlesticks are designed to display the open, high, low, and closing (OHLC) prices of an asset for specific time periods (usually by the minute, hour, day, week, and month). Typically, green candlesticks denote a bullish increase in price, while red candlesticks signify a bearish decrease in price. Candlesticks are generally thought of as the most well known technical indicator that investors use.
A candlestick body, or real body, is the widest portion of a Japanese candlestick that covers the area between the opening price and the closing price during a specific time frame, usually the minute, hour, day, week, month, or year. Generally, if the candlestick is red, the closing price is below the opening price, while a green candlestick signifies that the closing price is above the opening price. The candlestick also has a thin line-like portion called the candlestick wick (which appears above or below the body), that, like the body, is used to gauge price action and market sentiment.
A candlestick wick, or shadow, is the line on a Japanese candlestick that is used to indicate where the price of an asset has changed compared to its opening and closing prices. Wicks indicate the highest and lowest prices that an asset has traded over a specific time frame, usually by the minute, hour, day, week, month, or year. The candlestick also has a wide portion called the candlestick body that, like the wick, is used to gauge price action and market sentiment, along with several technical and fundamental indicators.
In DFINITY’s Internet Computer, a software canister is an evolved smart contract that features enhanced scalability and includes computational units. A software canister is comparable to a container used by other blockchain systems, because both are deployed as a software unit that is made up of compiled code and a mechanism for an application or service. Containerization allows applications to be separated from the main blockchain environment, enabling simple and reliable deployment. However, a canister is different from a container because it also stores data about the current software state with a record of numerous previous events and user interactions.
Capitulation refers to a drastic market downturn characterized by a period of strong selling activity, whereby investors might sell their holdings at an unprecedented rate to avoid further financial losses. Capitulation is sometimes referred to as panic selling. An example of capitulation on a longer time-frame in the crypto market is selling that took place after the price of bitcoin (BTC) reached an all-time high (ATH) of $20,000 USD in December of 2017 and subsequently crashed to $6,500 three months later. Shorter capitulations may be followed by an uptrend reversal in value.
CAP Theorem (CAP)
As it relates to theoretical computer science, CAP theorem is a theory that was developed by computer scientist Eric Brewer that states that it is impossible for a distributed data network to at the same time provide more than 2 out of 3 guarantees: consistency, availability, and partition tolerance (which stands for the acronym CAP). The theory was used as the basis for the Blockchain Trilemma theory which states that it is impossible to build and operate a blockchain protocol that is: decentralized, scalable, and secure.
Cardano is a Proof-of-Stake blockchain platform with smart contract functionality. In particular, Cardano is noted for its focus on academic research, high transactions-per-second (TPS) throughput, and an energy-efficient consensus mechanism called Ouroboros. ADA, the native token of the Cardano network, is used to facilitate transactions and smart contract execution.
Casascius Coins were physical bitcoin products sold until 2013. Made of metal, Casascius Coins had a tamper-resistant sticker concealing the private key and could be physically exchanged. The coins came preloaded with fixed amounts of 1, 10, 25, 100, and 1000 bitcoins. Unredeemed versions of Casascius Coins are highly valued on the collector’s market and sell for a large premium.
CashFusion is a privacy tool for concealing Bitcoin Cash transactions. It is an improvement on the CashShuffle tool with enhanced privacy characteristics. Improvements include a higher max amount that can be shuffled, the ability to “shuffle” or “fuse” different amounts than other participants, and more UTXO combinations, thus making transactions much more difficult to trace. Tor is also built into the CashFusion protocol to mask user IP addresses.
CashShuffle is a privacy tool for concealing Bitcoin Cash transactions. The process involves many users combining their funds into one large transaction, which is then sent back to the users in a way that hides their transaction paths. CashShuffle is a version of CoinJoin that works on the Bitcoin Cash protocol.
Casper is the name of the new Ethereum consensus mechanism that will transform the existing Ethereum network — based on a Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism, and known as Ethereum 1.0 since its release in 2015 — into a Proof of Stake (PoS) system called Ethereum 2.0. Casper is slowly being rolled out as part of Ethereum’s 2.0 Beacon Chain beginning in December 2020, and will consist of several upgrades. As of March 2021, Casper has been co-developed with two main implementations for the Ethereum 2.0 network, Casper CBC (Correct-by-Construction) and Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget).
Casper Correct by Construction (CBC)
Casper Correct by Construction (CBC) is the consensus mechanism employed by the Casper Network. Casper CBC was initially developed by Vlad Zamfir, a well-known software engineer and technologist who helped create Ethereum. The Casper Network’s current consensus protocol, the Highway Protocol, is based on the original Casper CBC specification, with several improvements relating to block finality and network flexibility.
Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (CFFG)
Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (CFFG) is the hybrid Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocol that is enabling Ethereum 2.0 to transition to a PoS system. Through the CFFG, Ethereum’s blocks will still be mined using PoW, and only ~2% of blocks will be finalized by network validators using this system. CFFG is part of Ethereum’s multi-step transition to a full PoS system, and Ethereum’s final 3.0 version will likely run on something more akin to Casper CBC.
CasperLabs is the blockchain software development company responsible for the creation and development of the Casper Network blockchain protocol. The Casper Network is built to be decentralized, future-proof, fully upgradeable, scalable, and designed with an emphasis on enterprise blockchain use. According to CasperLabs CEO Mrinal Manohar, the CasperLabs team is focused on “decentralization above all else. It doesn’t just describe our platform, it’s the guiding ethos for what we build, and everything we do as an organization.”
Caspian (CSP) is a cryptocurrency trading platform designed for institutional traders. The platform provides users with an order and execution management system (OEMS), position management system (PMS), risk management system (RMS), and tools for compliance and reporting requirements. CSP is an ERC-20 token that can be staked to earn discounts on the Caspian platform.
Catalysts (The Sandbox)
In The Sandbox game, Catalysts are ERC-20 tokens that define the ‘tier’ and scarcity of assets created by users. Catalysts add ‘sockets’ to assets which can be filled with Gems, another ERC-20 token that defines the attributes of assets.
Cboe Options Exchange
The Cboe Options Exchange is the world’s largest exchange for futures and options trading. Established in 1973, Cboe offers derivative options related to several products, including equities, indexes, and funds. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and exchange-traded Notes (ETNs) are also traded on the Cboe Options Exchange. Along with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), the Cboe Options Exchange launched Bitcoin futures trading in 2017.
Celo is a mobile-first blockchain payments platform that makes cryptocurrency and financial services accessible to anyone with a smartphone. Celo intends to build decentralized finance instruments that do not require the technical knowledge of many of today’s leading applications. Launched by Silicon Valley startup cLabs, Celo is a fork of the Ethereum blockchain that is specialized to create and distribute a suite of stablecoins backed by fiat currencies, particular localities, and even natural resources. Celo is governed by the holders of its native asset, CELO.
Censorship resistance refers to a blockchain network’s ability to remain tamper-proof. A sufficiently decentralized blockchain network transparently distributes data across a wide range of computers, which makes censorship extremely difficult. The transparent and decentralized nature of blockchains makes them highly resistant to external modifications.
A central bank controls the monetary policy and currency of a nation-state. Central banks function as the bank of governments, and have the power to set interest rates and the money supply. The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)
A central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital version of a country’s fiat currency. Regulated by a country’s monetary authority, CBDCs are designed to replace traditional fiat and increase ease of use for those that deploy them. CBDCs can increase the speed and transaction costs of fiat and cross-border settlement, potentially increasing financial inclusion for many. Yet, unlike blockchains, CBDCs aren’t decentralized and don’t have a supply cap. Critics contend that CBDCs won’t limit inflationary money printing — and that government control of a nation’s money supply through a CBDC could have serious repercussions concerning financial privacy and censorship.
Centralization refers to the consolidation of control, authority, and access by a person or group. In a blockchain context, centralization refers to the level of privilege and distribution of nodes verifying and managing the network. Blockchains relying on powerful ‘super nodes’ or nodes concentrated in a limited geographical area are considered more centralized.
Centralization refers to the concentration of power in the hands of too few. Centralization can lead businesses to a lack of transparency, efficiency, and balance and sometimes even result in the limited effectiveness of products and services. Centralized blockchains may distribute profits to a select few rather than allowing all potential users of the system to participate. A centralized blockchain structure may also stifle equitable governance and decision-making processes and promotes censorship and control of data, which are not favourable to the value a system should provide.
Centralized Decentralized Finance (CeDeFi)
Centralized decentralized finance (CeDeFi) is a blockchain-based system that is a hybrid between decentralized finance (DeFi) and centralized finance (CeFi) meant to leverage the best of both models. CeDeFi was created to allow large CeFi organizations to make use of various DeFi financial instruments. CeDeFi was also designed to offer numerous types of financial products and services that are not normally available through traditional DeFi. CeDeFi blockchain protocols also help large enterprises better adhere to strict regulatory and compliance issues, allowing them to operate more smoothly.
Centralized Exchange (CEX)
A centralized exchange (CEX) is a centrally controlled platform used to trade crypto assets. Centralized exchanges act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers. These platforms are custodians of user data and funds.
Centralized Finance (CeFi)
Centralized Finance (CeFi) is often thought of as a bridge between traditional finance (TradFi) and modern financial applications like blockchain and financial technology (FinTech). CeFi enterprises generally operate using a centralized governing body that controls users’ funds. Although numerous interpretations of what CeFi encompasses exist, centralized exchanges (CEXs), cryptocurrency asset custodians, and numerous FinTech applications like payment service providers are typically considered to be CeFi. CeFi service providers are often characterized as easy-to-use and heavily regulated with low fees. However, because they are centralized, they are potentially susceptible to a single points of failure.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
A Central Processing Unit (CPU), or main processor, is the most powerful component of the electronic circuitry inside a computerized system. The CPU processes essential logic, arithmetic, and input and output operations specified by the instructions of the operating system of a computer.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) Miner
A central processing unit (CPU) miner is simply a CPU that is being used to mine cryptocurrency. A CPU is an electronic circuit that can process or run multiple tasks or programs on a device. Although being flexible and multi-purpose in nature, CPUs are generally not as efficient or cost-effective at mining cryptocurrency as purpose-built crypto miners. However, there are a variety of CPUs with differing price points and mining performance characteristics. Some coins/blockchains have been purposefully designed and optimized for CPU mining.
Cerber ransomware is a type of malware that locks and encrypts a victim’s files until a ransom is paid. Cerber ransomware became notorious for its ransomware-as-a-service model, which enables malware creators to sell their services to other cybercriminals in return for a cut of the profit earned via the attacks.
Certificate Authority (CA)
A certificate authority (CA) is a third-party entity that issues certificates and manages the public keys required to cryptographically verify digital certificates online. CAs play a critical role in securing much of the information that is exchanged on the internet, and they can be government-based or large multinational corporations. Digital certificates are often used to encrypt digital transactions and identity data to enable the secure exchange of information online. Certificates based on the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol allow users to securely send instant messages and emails.
Certificate of Deposit (CD)
A Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a type of savings account that holds a fixed amount of money for a fixed period of time in exchange for interest paid by the issuing bank. Common time periods for a CD are six months, one year, or five years.
Chain Key Technology (DFINITY)
DFINITY’s chain key technology is a 48-byte public chain key that allows DFINITY’s Internet Computer to finalize transactions. The mechanism is used to render old blocks within the system unnecessary, and enables the Internet Computer Protocol to operate at web-speed by finalizing transactions needed to update smart contract states within 1 to 2 seconds. Chain key technology is also responsible for the communication of different components within the Internet Computer (such as subnets, canisters, and the Network Nervous System (NNS)) and the network’s consensus mechanism.
Chainlink is a decentralized oracle network that provides real-world data to smart contracts on the blockchain. LINK is the digital asset token used to pay for services on the network.
Chain Migration (Blockchain Development)
A chain migration occurrs when a blockchain project decides to operate on a different blockchain protocol. At this time, most decentralized finance (DeFi) projects are built on the Ethereum blockchain. An example of a chain migration would be if the DeFi protocol Aave left the Ethereum blockchain and migrated its protocol — complete with all its product and service offerings — over to the Binance Smart Chain. Chain migrations occur for various reasons including, for example, changes in company direction, or desired changes in tokenization standards (e.g., from ERC-20 to BEP-20).
Chain reorganizations occur when blockchain network nodes broadcast two different blocks simultaneously. Since both cannot be accepted to become a finalized block, then two versions of the blockchain proceed in parallel until one eventually becomes longer than the other, and is chosen to become the sole path forward. In order to ensure that network nodes all agree on the same version of the blockchain, chain reorganization takes place. If a node receives blocks that are part of a new longest chain, then it will essentially abandon the blocks in its old chain in favor of the new.
A crypto transaction has an input address, output address, and change output, which represents the information transacted. The change output is the difference between the input or output, or the “change” leftover. The change address is where the change output is sent.
Changpeng Zhao (CZ)
Changpeng Zhao (CZ) is the founder and CEO of Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange. Zhao was raised in China and Vancouver, Canada, and later studied computer science at McGill University in Montreal. After graduating, CZ began working for the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a software developer and later worked for Bloomberg Tradebook in a similar role. Prior to founding Binance in 2017, CZ held several positions for blockchain-enterprises such as the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) at OKCoin.
Channel (Technical Formation)
A channel is a charting pattern in technical analysis (TA) that is classified as an area where an asset is trading between two price trendlines (an upper and lower trendline). Channels generally form when an asset’s price stays between a resistance level that it won’t break above, and a support level it won’t drop below. There are several types of channels that can form, including ascending channels and descending channels. Channels can be used by traders, in combination with several other TA metrics, to initiate opportunities to buy and sell an asset at certain price levels.
Charles Hoskinson is the founder of the Cardano blockchain project, as well as one of the former founders of Ethereum, among other blockchain-focused businesses. Hoskinson left Ethereum in mid-2014 and began developing Cardano during 2015, which was initially released when the network officially went live in 2017. Hoskinson maintains large roles in the ongoing development of Cardano and the Cardano Foundation, as well as serving as the CEO of tech company IOHK.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) is a marketplace for derivative financial contracts. The Chicago-based exchange was founded in 1898 and is now one of the biggest global derivatives markets in the world. In 2017, the CME launched the trade of bitcoin futures contracts.
A childchain is a scalable blockchain on the OMG Network which is anchored to Ethereum. OMG’s scaling solution optimizes the speed of the Ethereum network by moving transactions off of the Ethereum main chain and onto childchains. The childchain does not hold users’ funds and it relies on the Ethereum blockchain and a decentralized network of watchers for its security. Childchains are different from sidechains in that sidechains have their own security mechanisms and custody users’ funds.
In the NEAR protocol, a chunk is an aggregation of transactions from a shard.
Ciphertext refers to encrypted text that is unreadable without authorized access. Plaintext is transformed into ciphertext via an encryption algorithm. Only those who are authorized to access the data should be able to decrypt the ciphertext back into readable plaintext.
A circular economy is an economic system that values a healthy economic structure with enhanced environmental sustainability. Circular economies prioritize the elimination of waste and the use of resources in a responsible manner — employing reuse, repair, recycling, repair, reimbursement, and sharing to create a closed-loop system that minimizes the creation of waste, pollution, and carbon emissions. The circular economy is designed to keep products, infrastructure, and equipment in use longer, to improve the productivity of all-import natural resources. The circular economic approach stands in contrast to a linear economy that employs an unsustainable “take, make, dispose” model of production.
The circulating supply is the total number of tokens of a specific cryptocurrency that are available in the market. The circulating supply includes all tokens locked in decentralized applications and held on crypto exchanges or in user wallets. The circulation supply is different from the total supply, which is the total amount of tokens that will ever be created.
As it relates to the banking and finance industry, clearing is the process of settling a financial trade or purchase of an asset by correctly and efficiently transferring funds to the seller, and in return, by transferring the corresponding asset to the buyer. Typically, a specialized organization acts as an intermediary in the clearing process to both buyer and seller to ensure procedure and finalization. The interrelated processes of clearing and settlement are what make up the post-trade process.
Cleos Command Line Interface (CLI)
The Cleos Command Line Interface (CLI) utilizes lines of text to process commands on the EOSIO blockchain platform. Cleos simplifies the development process for software engineers by giving them access to specific developer tools to interact with EOS blockchains. The CLI is used for reading data from the blockchain, sending new transactions, and to test and deploy smart contracts. Cleos interacts with Keosd, Nodeos and other components of the EOSIO ecosystem.
The client-server model is the main architectural computing model that most of the internet is based off of, with the “client” being the front-end of the system, and the “server” being the back-end of the system. The client side of a computing system is the portion of the platform that the user interacts with directly through their screen or graphical user interface (GUI), and the server side is the portion that the user doesn’t see that is responsible for the majority of the system’s operational efficiency. Client-server models in computing have been implemented since the beginning of the internet.
The close, or closing price, is one of four main data points used for day trading on the stock market. The other three are called low, high, and open — and all four are collectively known as OHLC. Traditionally, stock market trading was carried out during regular market hours, often only between 9am and 4pm local time, with markets closed on weekends. Cryptocurrency markets are open 24/7, so even though there is theoretically no closing price for crypto assets, the OHLC is still included on most charting platforms to signify the closing time of the regular stock market each day.
Closed Loop Payment Network
Closed loop payment networks are those in which a consumer loads money into an account that can only be used with specific merchants, whereas open loop payment networks allow consumers to use money stored in a centralized wallet for multiple merchants. Closed loop networks cut out several middlemen in a payment’s transaction, reducing transaction fees and speeding up settlement. Flexa utilizes a closed loop payment network architecture.
Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of specialized computer network resources — specifically of data storage and computing power that is not managed by a single entity. The term cloud computing generally describes a data center that is readily available to users around the world via the internet. Large, centralized cloud computing enterprises are predominantly available today, and often have their network infrastructure distributed over multiple locations. There are several different types of cloud computing models, including enterprise clouds, public clouds, hybrid clouds, and more. More recently, through blockchain technology, decentralized cloud computing infrastructure has become more readily available.
Cloud mining is the process of mining cryptocurrency through the use of a third-party provider by purchasing a cloud mining contract. It doesn’t require owning the associated hardware. You typically purchase a fixed amount of cloud computing power (measured in hashes per second) for a set period of time and receive the associated mining rewards associated with your contract. You can also lease the mining rigs themselves — usually application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) miners — which can give you more flexibility but generally includes setup and maintenance fees.
Coinbase (Cryptocurrency Exchange)
Coinbase is one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world. Based in the U.S.A., it provides spot trading to retail U.S. investors and custody services to hold large amounts of crypto for institutional investment firms. Coinbase was founded by CEO Brian Armstrong in 2012 and completed an Initial Public Offering (IPO) via NASDAQ in April 2021.
Coinbase Transaction (Generation Transaction)
A generation transaction, or a coinbase transaction as it is commonly known, is the first transaction data contained in a block on the Bitcoin blockchain. The generation transaction is responsible for clearly delineating the recipient(s) of a particular block’s block reward. As opposed to traditional transactions which contain input and output data, generation transactions mint new bitcoin (BTC) from the protocol itself and therefore do not require input data.
CoinJoin was originally developed as a privacy tool for concealing a user’s Bitcoin transactions. “CoinJoining” involves many users combining their funds into one large transaction, which is then sent back to them in a way that hides their transaction paths. CoinJoin is a non-custodial solution, which means users never lose control of their funds during the CoinJoining process. Different versions and variations of CoinJoin can now be found on multiple protocols outside of Bitcoin.
A coin mixer is a software or service that mixes the cryptocurrencies of many different users to preserve privacy and anonymity despite the public ledger of blockchain networks. Coin mixing increases the challenge of tracking transactions, and has been found evident in dark web activities and money laundering in addition to its legal uses.
Coin Swap (or Token Swap)
A coin swap or token swap is the process of a platform replacing an existing token with a significantly updated token. The new token is designed to give the protocol significant increased utility needed to further expand the project and distributed to wallet holders, while the pre-existing token is voided.
Cold storage refers to the offline storage of a cryptocurrency wallet. “Offline” means that the wallet is disconnected from the internet, preventing hackers from accessing it. Cold storage is considered to be the most secure way to hold crypto assets.
A cold wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet that is not connected to the internet. Cold wallets most often come in the form of hardware wallets, which are physical devices that store private keys. Cold wallets stand in contrast to hot wallets, which are connected to the internet.
Collateral refers to an asset that is offered as security for repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in the event of a default (a situation in which an individual is unable to pay back a loan). When borrowing money on a DeFi lending platform, collateral in the form of a token must be locked. The collateral is returned upon repayment of the loan. If the loan is not repaid, the collateral remains locked on the platform.
The collateral factor is the amount of collateral required to mint another asset or collateralize a loan. It sets the maximum borrowing amount. Also called the collateral ratio, it’s commonly used on over-collateralized decentralized finance (DeFi) loans. Although they vary, a typical collateral factor would be 1:2 (or 50%), meaning you could borrow $500 USD if the deposited collateral is worth $1000. When the value of a user’s collateral falls below the collateral factor (for example with a volatile asset), they must add more collateral or risk their collateral being liquidated to repay a portion of the loan.
Collateralization is the use of one asset to back the value of another asset. With crypto, the process requires the storing and locking of the collateralized assets within a blockchain protocol.
Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO)
A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) is a complex financial product that is typically backed by a pool of loans and different types of assets that are sold to institutional investors. CDOs are a specific type of derivative whose value is derived from other underlying assets, which become collateral if the initial loan defaults. CDOs can be risky in their own right, but are a practical tool for freeing up capital and reducing risk for investors.
Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)
On the Maker platform, a collateralized debt position (CDP) is created when a borrower provides cryptocurrency as collateral in order to mint or borrow the DAI stablecoin. The value of the collateral in a CDP must always remain above a certain minimum requirement or else risk liquidation. In the event of liquidation, the collateral in the CDP is sold in order to repay a portion of the DAI debt. The collateral in the CDP can be returned when the DAI is repaid by the borrower.
Collateralized Loan Obligation (CLO)
Collateralized loan obligations (CLOs) are complex debt instruments that consist of many loans bundled together and sold as a single investment. CLOs are organized according to their risk profiles. They are similar to collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs).
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)
A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is a complex debt instrument that consists of many mortgages bundled together that are sold as a single investment. CMOs are organized according to their risk profiles. They are similar to collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and are believed to be a contributing factor in the 2007-2009 global financial crisis.
Collateral tokens are tokens employed for various blockchain use cases, acting as a collateralization method for users of the financial services provided by a blockchain network. This can include yield farming, borrowing, staking, lending, and other decentralized finance (DeFi) mechanisms. For example, stablecoins, bitcoin (BTC), ether (ETH), and other crypto assets are often used to maintain the stability of a specific asset type. As they relate to the Reserve Protocol specifically, collateral tokens are used to maintain the stability of the RSV stablecoin’s peg at a 1:1 ratio with the U.S. dollar.
Collators are full nodes on the Polkadot Network that are present both on parachains and the main Relay Chain. Their main purpose is to maintain parachains (which are sovereign blockchains or specialized shards) by collecting parachain transactions and producing state transition proofs (essentially machine-driven progress reports) for validators on the Relay Chain. Collators can access all state transition information necessary for authoring new blocks and executing transactions — much like how miners provide value in a Proof-of-Work system. Collators are also used to send and receive messages from other parachains, facilitating communication through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP).
Developed in 2013, Colored Coins was a proposal that aimed to use the Bitcoin blockchain to issue “colored bitcoins” that could represent various “colors” (i.e., varieties) of assets — including currencies, stocks, and more. The project was an early attempt to create what we now refer to as tokens.
A combolist is a text file which lists out usernames and passwords in a machine-readable format. The file is used as an input for an account-checker tool that can automate authentication requests to a website, online service provider, or application programming interface (API). Combolists are often created following an online data breach and packaged and sold by hackers to other malicious actors.
Command Line Interface (CLI)
A Command Line Interface (CLI) is a system that utilizes lines of text to process commands for a specialized computer program. The interface used to execute command line instructions is called a command-line-processor or command-line-interpreter. Most applications utilize menu-driven or graphical user interfaces, but some still use a command line — especially for software development and other technical processes.
Commit chain is a generic term for Layer-2 scaling solutions built for the Ethereum blockchain or other blockchain protocols. Commit chains are also sometimes called non-custodial side chains and don’t utilize their own consensus mechanism, instead making use of their parent chain’s consensus framework. With commit chains, non-custodial third-parties often allow for the communication between transacting parties that share and verify user account balances via regular updates to the parent blockchain.
Commodities are raw materials that are fungible or interchangeable for like-goods. Commodities range from agricultural goods like wheat and sugar to hard metals like gold, copper, and titanium. Gold is considered a highly fungible commodity because it can be easily exchanged regardless of the source or producer.
Commodity-backed stablecoins are pegged to the value of underlying commodity assets like gold, silver, or real estate. Holders of these stablecoins have a claim to their underlying assets. The most popular commodity-backed stablecoins are backed by gold. For example, each PAX Gold (PAXG) token is pegged on a 1:1 ratio to one troy ounce (t oz) of a 400-ounce London Good Delivery gold bar.
Commodity Exchange Act (CEA)
The Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is a law and statutory framework that regulates commodity futures trading and investing in the United States. Commodities include metals, agricultural products, energy and technology instruments, and other global markets. The CEA was originally passed in 1936 and has been modified several times since then and has been upheld by the United States’ Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) since 1974. The CEA was created to maintain the integrity of futures markets in the U.S. and to protect against market manipulation and fraudulent investing practices.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is a United States-based regulatory body responsible for regulating the U.S. derivatives market to foster open, transparent, competitive, financially sound markets. The CFTC aims to expand on practices first laid out in 1936 by the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) to protect market participants from fraud, market manipulation, and other unethical practices. The CFTC works together with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other regulatory bodies in the U.S. to achieve these common goals.
Within the Crypto.com blockchain ecosystem, Community Nodes are responsible for sending, verifying, and receiving transactions, as well as reading data on the protocol. Community Nodes can be accessed for use by any member of the Crypto.com community.
Community Representative Node (C-Rep)
On the ICON Network, a Community Representative (C-Rep) represents one of the two main types of Peer nodes (the other being a P-Rep) that are responsible for maintaining network security and consensus. A C-Rep represents the community interests of enterprise and governmental constituents like hospitals, government entities, financial markets, and corporate entities.
A compiler is a software implementation that translates, or compiles, computer code written in one software development language into another so that it can be used with different types of computing infrastructure. Among other functions, compilers are commonly used to translate computerized code from high-level programming languages into simpler assembly languages that are able to decipher machine-readable instructions.
Compliance is the process of ensuring financial enterprises meet certain regulatory guidelines introduced by government bodies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the U.S. These guidelines seek to protect investors, ensure consumer confidence, facilitate the transparency, efficiency, and fairness of markets while reducing financial crime and system risk.
Composability is a design feature that accommodates for infrastructural elements of a system to be easily integrated with and utilized by other systems and third parties. Composable systems are often compared to “Lego blocks” because they are built of various parts that can be fit together to create new platforms.
Compound is a decentralized lending and borrowing platform for digital assets on Ethereum. Borrowers on Compound are required to provide a minimum amount of collateral to access a loan, while interest rates are determined by crowdsourced token supply. Tokens locked in the Compound protocol automatically earn interest as they are lent out to borrowers.
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
The Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) is the rate of return of an investment over a specified period of time as denoted by using an annual percentage. The CAGR is expressed by using this formula: CAGR = (EB/BB)^(1/N) – 1
where: EB = Ending balance BB = Beginning balance N = Number of years
COMP is the governance token of the Compound protocol, a decentralized, blockchain-based protocol that allows users to lend and borrow crypto. A predetermined amount of COMP is distributed to all lenders and borrowers on the Compound protocol every day. Anyone who owns at least 1% of the total COMP supply can submit and vote on proposals to change the protocol.
Computational backlog (or debt) is defined as a set of calculations that must be completed to bring a backlog on a computer system, network, or related system up to date. Computational backlog occurs when a computer system or a blockchain network accumulates too much computational debt. This is a highly undesirable situation for a blockchain because it can result in deteriorating system performance, including significant transaction time delays. Computational backlog must be managed efficiently to maintain the long-term health of the network.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software
Computer-aided design (CAD) software is any type of software program that is built for creating digital designs of objects. CAD software has virtually unlimited use cases including manufacturing and product design, architecture and infrastructure design, vehicle design, electronics design, and much more. CAD software allows users to test objects in numerous distinct mediums using various real-world simulations to develop products that actually have utility. CAD programs are typically used on a tablet or computer to create three-dimensional objects in various mediums.
Compute-to-data is a relatively new and popular method of training artificial intelligence (AI) models characterized by running an algorithm where a set of data exists, rather than the traditional method of sending the data to where the algorithm runs. This model exists to preserve data security — by keeping data securely onsite — while still allowing third parties to use and benefit from the data. Compute-to-data is especially useful with data-intensive workloads, the likes of which are common with cutting-edge industries like AI.
Concealment is a category of malware that attacks computer systems by evading detection. Common types of concealment malware include Trojans, backdoors, and rootkits.
Confirmation (or “Confirmation Time”)
As it relates to blockchain and crypto, a confirmation is a measurement of how many blocks have been finalized since a transaction was sent from one address to another. As more confirmations take place, the security of the transaction increases until all block confirmations have been finalized and permanently become part of the ledger. The number of confirmations needed to successfully finalize a transaction varies depending on the network because all protocols operate differently. The time it takes for a confirmation to be finalized also varies based on the particular blockchain network.
A consensus mechanism is an algorithm that participants in a blockchain network use to reach an agreement on the state of the blockchain ledger, including the order of transactions. Popular consensus algorithms include Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Stake (PoS), and Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS).
ConsenSys is a large blockchain company based in New York City with a presence in more than 30 countries around the world. It was founded in 2015 by Joseph Lubin — a pivotal voice in the blockchain industry since his early work with the development of the Ethereum network and the Ethereum Foundation. ConsenSys is a decentralized blockchain production studio with more than 500 employees globally which develops software and related solutions primarily for the Ethereum blockchain ecosystem. The company also provides enterprise and government consulting, as well as software development services for large companies across the world.
A consortium blockchain is a private network managed by multiple entities, wherein each retains special privileges. Controlling entities typically participate in the consensus process as a transaction validator and have permissions to view certain types of data. Consortium blockchains are a less decentralized digital ledger technology that maintains some benefits of distributed systems for use cases like enterprise and government.
Constant Product Formula
A constant product formula is an algorithm used to determine the price of tokens on an automated market maker (AMM) platform. The formula maintains that tokens in a liquidity pool must remain at a fixed relative value. The most well-known formula is x * y = k, pioneered by the Uniswap protocol, which maintains that a pair of tokens in a liquidity pool must remain at equal total values. By fixing the relative value of the tokens, the formula is able to automatically determine pricing.
Constant Reserve Rate (CRR)
The constant reserve rate (CRR) or constant reserve ratio, is the amount of cash that commercial banks must hold to protect their long-term viability in case a bank run occurs and customers rush to withdraw all their funds out of their accounts. The CRR takes into consideration the total amount of assets (including stocks, bonds, equities, derivatives, and other investment types) held by the bank. Commercial banks in the U.S. are regularly audited by the Federal Reserve to ensure their CRR is accurate and that they are operating in a fully compliant manner.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measurement designed to track the weighted average of a basket of consumer goods and services including transportation, food, medical care, and associated costs of living in a specific area. It is determined by aggregating the average prices of a basket of items, and is generally used to identify periods of inflation or deflation and the overall efficiency of a government’s economic policies. The CPI typically involves statistics that cover those who are employed, self-employed, unemployed, retired, incarcerated, impoverished, and more.
Consumer-to-business (C2B) is a business model that is used by a consumer or end user to provide a product or service that benefits a company or related organization. With a C2B business model, a customer is often incentivized to market a product or service via a website, blog, podcast, video, or social media account. In a C2B model, the business benefits from the marketing of the product, while the consumer often benefits from free or discounted products, payment, or other benefits. C2B is one of four main business models alongside business-to-consumer (B2C), business-to-business (B2B), and consumer-to-consumer (C2C).
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) is a business model that involves the sharing or sale of products and services between consumers. The C2C model is often facilitated by a third-party service provider or company and is usually conducted on the internet. Examples of C2C platforms include online auction platforms (e.g., eBay), exchange of goods and services platforms (e.g., Craigslist), and digital payment platforms (e.g., PayPal and Venmo). Amazon’s online marketplace also operates using both a business-to-consumer (B2C) and C2C model. C2C is one of four main business models alongside B2C, business-to-business (B2B), and consumer-to-business (C2B).
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
A Content Delivery Network allows specific decentralized applications (dApps) to enable the sharing of internet content such as web objects (like text, graphics, and scripts), downloadable objects (such as software, media files, and documents), streaming media, and social media websites.
Continuous Order Book
A continuous order book is a listing of parties interested in buying or selling an asset on a market. The list specifies the quantities and prices each buyer or seller is willing to accept for an exchange. A matching engine is concurrently used to pair the buyers and sellers, while the order book is updated in real time.
Contract for Difference (CFD)
A Contract for Difference (CFD) is a derivatives trading agreement that settles the difference between the open and closing prices of an asset in cash with no rewards in physical goods or other compensatory value. A CFD allows traders to bet against the anticipated direction of an asset price by using advanced trading techniques over a very short time period, often with extremely high leverage. CFDs are typically used by investors to trade forex (fx), crypto, commodities, and other markets.
Contract separation is a key design logic that underpins the Gemini dollar (GUSD) smart contract. Instead of a single unifying smart contract, Gemini dollar contracts are separated into multiple layers, each with a specific function. Contact separation increases the security and robustness of smart contracts within GUSD’s protocol.
In an investment context, convergence refers to the confluence of two data points, such as when the current price of an asset and its relative strength index (RSI) both increase. The opposite of convergence is divergence, where two technical indicators go in opposite directions. Convergence can also be classified as a process whereby the price of a futures contract gets closer to the spot price of an underlying commodity — thus converging — as the delivery date of the contract expires.
Cookie (Data Packet)
A cookie, sometimes called an internet cookie or HTTP cookie, is a packet of data that a computer receives (and sends back when needed) from a website while a user is browsing the internet. Cookies have various purposes including tracking and storing browsing history, keeping track of online purchases, and for user authentication of login credentials, among other tasks. Cookies are very important in facilitating the proper functionality of the internet as user and networking architecture would not functionally operate without them.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the primary time standard that the world uses to correctly regulate time and clocks. UTC makes use of extremely precise atomic clocks in conjunction with the Earth’s rotation, and is always within one second of mean solar time at 0° longitude and is not adjusted for daylight savings time. UTC, which was implemented on January 1, 1960, is the successor to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). UTC time is a critical data point used by investors as a universal indicator of the times that different stock markets open and close across the globe.
The coordinator is a centralized master node on the IOTA Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) network that curates and approves all transactions. Because IOTA relies on centralized master nodes, the network is not considered to be fully decentralized. IOTA’s roadmap has a plan called “Coordicide”, which attempts to minimize the role of the coordinator while still providing a secure network.
Copy trading, sometimes called mirror trading, is the process of utilizing algorithmic software to mimic the trading strategies and habits of another trader or group of traders. Many users pay for services that allow them to copy the trades that a real trader makes, with the hopes of obtaining higher levels of profitability. Copy trading can be utilized for most market types to trade any number of assets, and can be used via a mobile device, computer, or through more complex, expensive combinations of computing hardware and software (e.g., by an institutional investment firm).
A corporate bond is a debt security a company issues in order to raise capital that can be traded on the secondary market. Purchasers of corporate bonds effectively lend money to the issuing company in return for a series of interest payments. Rating agencies like Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s, and Fitch evaluate the creditworthiness of corporate bonds.
A correction, in a stock trading and crypto investing context, is an occurrence that signifies that the market, or a specific asset has just had a large drop in price from its recent higher price. The process usually results in the price returning to a level more established over the long-term. Corrections are often followed by a recovery in price and a continued uptrend, but can sometimes indicate a prolonged long-term market downturn called a bear market.
Cosmos is a platform designed to connect independent blockchain networks. The platform facilitates data transfer between different blockchains to facilitate what is referred to as the ‘internet of blockchains’. ATOM is the native token of the Cosmos network, and it is used for transaction payments, governance voting, and staking to secure the network.
Cosmos Gravity Bridge
The Cosmos Gravity Bridge is a specialized type of blockchain architecture that is designed to act as a bridge between the Cosmos Hub blockchain and the Ethereum network. Its main purpose is to facilitate the transfer of ERC-20 assets originating on Ethereum over to various Cosmos-based blockchains — and then back again to Ethereum if needed.
The Cosmos Hub is the primary blockchain protocol used for connecting with other blockchains as part of the Cosmos Network’s endeavor to facilitate an ‘internet of blockchains’. The Cosmos Hub is a Proof-of-Stake blockchain built by the Tendermint team. Its ATOM token is used to both secure the network through staking and vote on governance decisions.
Cosmos Software Development Kit (SDK)
The Cosmos software development kit (SDK) is a framework that allows developers to build Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchains. The framework is designed to construct application-specific blockchains rather than more generalized virtual machine-based blockchains. The Cosmos SDK is a scalable, open-source infrastructure, and is used to build blockchain platforms such as the Cosmos Hub.
CosmWasm is a blockchain, decentralized application (dApp), and smart contract development framework created by Cosmos for developers building on the Cosmos Network. Leading blockchain ecosystems employing the use of CosmWasm include: Terra (LUNA), Iris Network (IRIS), OKExChain (OKT), Persistence (XPRT), and others. CosmWasm is a WebAssembly-based (WASM) iteration designed to allow software engineers to easily build smart contracts in Rust, Go, or AssemblyScript on multiple chains through the Cosmos Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) Protocol interoperability solution. CosmWasm is built for easy integration with Cosmos SDK and as a mature tooling system for smart contract deployment and testing.
The cost basis is the reported starting value of a particular asset such as a cryptocurrency that you own. The cost basis can be the price of the asset on either the date of purchase, or the date the asset was received. When the asset is sold, the cost basis is subtracted from the sale price to determine the monetary gain or loss.
A Council Node is the most powerful and important node type within the Crypto.com blockchain system. They are responsible for maintaining network consensus and governance of the platform. Council nodes are used for settlement execution, ordering transactions and CRO rewards tracking, along with verifying, receiving, and sending all network transactions. Council Nodes also maintain a whitelist log for Council Node, Acquirer Node, and Community Node Identities.
Counterparty (Blockchain Protocol)
Counterparty is a protocol that is designed to allow the issuance of tokens on the Bitcoin blockchain.
Counterparty risk refers to the possibility that a party involved in a transaction will fail to meet their obligations. Various measures can be put in place to mitigate counterparty risk. One such measure is a smart contract, which is only automatically executed once certain conditions have been met.
In a corporate bond, a coupon (or coupon payment) is the dollar amount of interest paid to an investor. It is calculated by multiplying the interest rate of the bond by its face value.
A credit rating is an analysis of the credit risks associated with a financial entity. A credit rating may be assigned to any entity that seeks to borrow money — a corporation, individual, state authority, or sovereign government. Credit ratings assess the ability of a borrower to repay a loan — either in general, or for a particular debt or financial obligation.
Credit risk refers to the loss potential of a borrower failing to repay a loan. In a fixed-income investment agreement, interest payments are meant as an incentive for an investor to assume credit risk. Higher interest rates tend to compensate for greater credit risk.
CRO is the foundational utility token that drives Crypto.com’s ecosystem of payment, trading, and financial services. The CRO token is utilized for on-chain transaction settlement, and to ensure the consensus and security of the platform. CRO is also designed to be used as an incentivization mechanism by providing rewards for users who engage with various services within the Crypto.com ecosystem.
Cross-Chain and Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP)
Cross-chain describes the transfer of data, tokenized assets, or other types of information from one independent blockchain network to another. On the Polkadot network, XCMP is a specialized mechanism used to send information between different blockchains linked together on Polkadot’s interoperable network. The XCMP system relies on Polkadot’s collator nodes to route messages between blockchains.
Cross-Chain communication is a process that allows for communication between different blockchain networks by enabling mutual interaction and value exchange — for example, in the form of token exchange and the sharing of multiple data types. Cross chain communication is central to the concept of blockchain interoperability. There are many inefficiencies related to cross-chain communication, but as blockchain technology continues to advance, many experts predict that it will become increasingly more efficient to exchange data in more ways, such that one day full data sharing capabilities between hundreds and even thousands of networks may be possible.
Cross Margin (Derivatives Trading)
Cross margin, or spread margin, is a form of margin trading that uses the full amount of a user’s available account balance to avoid liquidations. By using cross margin trading, any realized profit and loss (PNL) helps add margin on a losing position. Cross margin trading is helpful for users that are hedging existing positions and also for arbitrageurs that want to limit their exposure to the losing side of a trade in the event of a liquidation. Cross margin trading is the opposite of isolated margin trading, which only uses isolated portions of the account balance for each trade.
A crowdloan is a process through which parachain teams building on Polkadot or Kusama enable outside investors to stake their DOT or KSM tokens within a parachain slot, for the purpose of increasing their allocated number of tokens — thereby strengthening the chances of winning a parachain slot auction. If successful, the project will be able to operate their parachain in the Polkadot Relay Chain or the Kusama Rococo Relay Chain for a period of 6 months to 2 years, with the possibility of extension prior to expiration. Winning teams are able to structure their crowdloan in numerous ways, rewarding their various contributors how they want.
The CRV token is the ERC-20 token that governs the Curve protocol. CRV token holders have the ability to propose and vote on changes to the platform. The CRV token can be earned by providing liquidity to designated Curve liquidity pools.
Cryptoart is native to the blockchain and has its own particular aesthetic. It can be defined as rare digital artworks — sometimes called “digital trading cards” or “rares” — which are associated with unique and provably rare tokens that exist on the blockchain.
A crypto-backed loan lives on the blockchain and requires borrowers to provide cryptocurrency as collateral. When borrowers pay back into the smart contract, they receive their collateral.
Crypto-backed stablecoins are one of four main types of stablecoins. They are pegged to the value of an underlying cryptocurrency asset (rather than a fiat currency, for example). With cryptocurrency as their underlying collateral, crypto-backed stablecoins are issued on-chain. To obtain a crypto-backed stablecoin, a user locks their cryptocurrency in a smart contract to receive tokens of equal representative value to their underlying collateral. Paying the stablecoins back into the same smart contract allows a user to withdraw their original collateral. DAI is the most prominent stablecoin in this category.
Crypto-collateralized loans are a type of loan where the issuer accepts a cryptocurrency deposit as collateral to issue a loan in another cryptocurrency or fiat currency. The borrower must typically deposit a higher amount of initial cryptocurrency to provide a buffer against the market volatility common to digital assets. These types of loans are designed so that a borrower can access fiat liquidity while still maintaining ownership of their digital assets in order to avoid taxable events (such as a sale) or missing out on market appreciation. Since these loans are collateralized (often overly so), they are commonly processed extremely quickly (sometimes in minutes) without the need for traditional credit checks.
Crypto.com is a cryptocurrency payments platform that promotes the widespread adoption of cryptocurrency. The site initially ran on a dual-token structure that used two different native tokens, Monaco Coin (MCO) and Crypto.com Chain Token (CRO). However, in late 2020 the platform completed a token swap which consolidated the network under the CRO token, which is now used as the platform’s primary payment token for cross-asset settlements, block transaction fees and validation rewards, and as a staking mechanism to unlock tiered user benefits.
Cryptocurrency is a digital asset that circulates on the internet as a medium of exchange. It employs blockchain technology — a distributed ledger of transactions that is publicly available — and is secured by advanced cryptography. This revolutionary asset architecture allows for certainty that cryptocurrency coins and tokens cannot be double-spent even in the absence of a centralized intermediary. The first cryptocurrency to achieve mainstream success was Bitcoin which paved the way for the proliferation of many other cryptocurrencies.
A cryptocurrency exchange is a type of digital currency exchange where digital assets can be bought, sold, and traded for fiat currency or other digital assets. They are similar to mainstream exchanges where traditional stocks are bought and sold in the type of transactions and orders that users can execute. Cryptocurrency exchanges have evolved significantly from the earliest iterations (which were often unregulated) to provide more security and accessibility and ensure legal compliance in accordance with the jurisdictions in which they operate. As the cryptocurrency space continues to grow, more exchanges have emerged which provide competitive trading fees, exchange rates, and user-friendly features as they vie for more users and trading volume.
A cryptocurrency faucet is a website or mobile application that distributes small amounts of crypto to users in exchange for completing tasks to help grow a project’s reach, such as sharing posts on social media, viewing ads, and watching videos, among others. Not to be confused with airdrops, which typically present bigger rewards, faucets are aptly named because their rewards are small and analagous to drops of water leaking from a faucet. The first Bitcoin faucet was created by Gavin Anderson in 2010 to give new users access to bitcoin (BTC) and to help raise awareness and involvement.
Cryptocurrency Pair (Trading Pair)
A trading pair refers to the matching of a buy order and a sell order for any type of asset. When a trading pair is available for cryptocurrencies, it means that you can view the value of one cryptocurrency asset relative to another cryptocurrency asset. This is most typically available with bitcoin (BTC) and allows you to see how much a given asset is worth in BTC instead of, say, a fiat currency. Cryptocurrency pairs help establish value between cryptocurrencies without referring back to fiat currency.
Cryptocurrency wallets come in a variety of forms, their most basic function is to store a user’s private and public keys and interact with various blockchains enabling users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their cryptocurrency balances. Wallets have a public address that can be given out for people to send you digital assets, and a private key to confirm the transfer of digital assets to others. Wallets can be digital (software) or physical (hardware), hot (connected to the internet) or cold (disconnected from the internet), custodial (a trusted third party has control of a user’s private keys) or non-custodial (only the user controls their private keys).
CryptoDefense is an advanced subset of CryptoLocker Ransomware that appeared around 2014. It used public-key cryptography, and targeted computers running the Windows operating system. The infection was spread through spam emails with infected PDF documents. Victims were often given 72 hours to pay ransom, collected largely in Bitcoin, in order to regain access to their infected files which would otherwise be permanently deleted.
Blockchain networks employ specialized on-chain mechanisms — often called cryptographic proofs — that allow data transferred on a network protocol to be verifiable and unalterable. The process is facilitated through complex algorithmic cryptography that is immutable and helps prevent the falsification and modification of data, so that network users and outside participants know with increased certainty that the value, data or tokens they are sending or receiving is in fact legitimate. These characteristics make it possible for users to place considerably less trust in another party, instead relying on the underlying blockchain protocol, its smart contract mechanisms, and its informatic code.
A cryptographic proof is a special type of technology that is commonly built into a blockchain network to hide sensitive information. Cryptographic proofs are generally used to prove and verify certain data without revealing any other details about the data itself. They are designed to conceal details such as ownership and other sensitive data from other parties that participate in the network. Zk-SNARKS are one of the most effective and well-known types of cryptographic proofs.
Cryptojacking refers to a type of attack where the victim’s computer, or other hardware, is turned into a cryptocurrency mining device without their knowledge. Victims’ devices and electricity are then used to generate cryptocurrency mining rewards on behalf of the attacker. Cryptojacking can be carried out remotely through malware or by someone with direct physical access to the device.
CryptoKitties is a blockchain game created by Axiom Zen in 2017. The game allows players to purchase, sell, and breed digital collectible cats that are ERC721 tokens, also called non-fungible tokens (NFTs).
CryptoLocker Ransomware is a type of ransomware that first appeared around 2013. It infiltrated computers through spam emails, which included an infected ZIP file as attachment, in its first wave of attacks. Attackers used encryption algorithms to encrypt infected files and systems, which then spread to other devices through network drives. A second version of CryptoLocker was spread through the peer-to-peer botnet Gameover ZeuS, which used a botnet to send spam or fake emails that would lure victims into executing exploit kits.
Cryptocurrency mining is the process of solving equations in a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to verify transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain. Computers that support a blockchain network are called nodes, and the process by which they solve complex equations is called mining. Miners are those who operate these computers. For their efforts, they are compensated with a mining reward, typically in the blockchain’s native cryptocurrency.
Crypto Mining Processor (CMP)
A crypto mining processor (CMP) is a graphics processing unit (GPU) designed specifically for crypto mining. These crypto-specific graphics cards typically include better hashing performance over comparable GPUs since they are optimized to mine cryptocurrencies. In addition, these cards usually can’t be used for other purposes (like gaming or video rendering) as they lack the external connections needed for streaming video to a monitor.
Crypto ransomware uses encryption to maliciously block access to a user’s data. Victims of a crypto ransomware attack are told to pay a ransom in return for releasing their locked data. In recent years, attackers have demanded ransoms to be paid in cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin.
A crypto token is a blockchain-based unit of value that organizations or projects can customize and develop for use within existing blockchain ecosystems. Crypto tokens can be programmable, transparent, permissionless, and trustless. They can also serve many functions on the platforms for which they are built, including being used as collateral in decentralized financial (DeFi) applications, accessing platform-specific services, voting on DeFi protocols and even taking part in games.
CryptoWall is an advanced subset of CryptoLocker Ransomware that first appeared around 2014. It used a sophisticated encryption algorithm and spread through email attachments, exploit kits, and drive-by downloads. In order for a user to regain access to their infected files, ransom was demanded in Bitcoin and Litecoin.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A cToken is a lending token native to the Compound DeFi platform. When users deposit a cryptocurrency using the Compound protocol, they receive cTokens which represent the initial deposit plus accrued interest. For example, lending DAI to Compound gives the lender cDAI, which automatically earns interest for the cDAI holder. At any time, cDAI can be returned to Compound in exchange for the original DAI plus the accumulated interest.
Cumulus is an extension of the Polkadot Substrate development framework that allows Substrate-built runtimes to be compatible with Polkadot parachains through Polkadot’s Relay Chain. A fundamental component of Cumulus is the Cumulus consensus engine, which is used to run a Polkadot node. This consensus engine is internally used to dictate to the node and synchronization algorithms which chain to follow, finalize, and treat as legitimate. Cumulus also makes use of Cumulus Runtimes to help enable validator nodes to work via Substrate and the system’s block validator application programming interface (API). Finally, Polkadot Collators are also implemented via the Cumulus repository.
A currency crisis is a type of financial crisis characterized by a nation’s fiat currency losing its value. A currency crisis arises when investors become leery of holding a country’s assets. For example, when investors lost confidence in the Icelandic financial sector, the country faced a currency crisis when the value of Icelandic currency fell by 60% between the end of 2007 and the end of 2008.
Curve is a DeFi cryptocurrency exchange optimized for low slippage and low fee swaps between assets pegged to the same value. Curve is an automated market maker (AMM) that relies on liquidity pools and rewarding those who fund the pools, and deals only in stablecoins. CRV is the governance token of the Curve protocol, and is also used to pay liquidity providers on the platform.
A custodial wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet where a third party holds a user’s private keys and cryptocurrency funds. With a custodial wallet, a user must trust a third party to secure their funds and return them upon request. The most common custodial wallets are web-based exchange wallets.
A custodian is responsible for securely storing assets, such as cryptocurrency, for another institution or individual. Typically, custodial services are targeted at institutional investors who hold large amounts of cryptocurrency. Custodians are often exchanges that host cryptocurrency wallets for their users.
Custody refers to the legal ability for a financial institution to hold and protect financial assets for its customers with the aim of preventing asset theft or loss. Custodians may hold assets in both electronic and physical form. Because they are responsible for safeguarding assets for many customers (potentially worth billions of dollars), custodial firms tend to be extremely large and reputable institutions. With cryptocurrency and blockchain custody solutions, custodianship may also include the management and safekeeping of a customer’s private keys. Cryptocurrency exchanges often custody their customers’ private keys and cryptocurrency holdings.
Customer Due Diligence (CDD)
Customer Due Diligence (CDD) is the process of verifying the identity of potential customers. Typically, this process gathers facts about potential customers enabling an organization to assess the extent to which the customer may expose the organization to a range of risks, including money laundering and terrorist financing activities. This process usually entails obtaining a customer’s name, residential address, and official government documentation that includes their photograph and date of birth.
Customer Identification Program (CIP)
Established by the U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 and implemented in 2003, the Customer Identification Program (CIP) prescribes the minimum standards with which financial institutions must confirm the identity of a new customer in connection with opening an account. Each financial institution’s CIP is proportional to its size and type of business, types of accounts offered, methods of opening accounts, and other factors. The objective of this program is to minimize the degree to which the U.S. financial system is used for money laundering and terrorist financing activities.
A cyber attack is a malicious online data intrusion carried out by criminals against a computer system, network, or related software or hardware device. Cyber attacks are used to disable a target network or computer system, steal or destroy important data, or to compromise computers to launch more complex and damaging attacks.
Cybersecurity — also referred to as computer security or information technology (IT) security — is the practice of protecting computer networks and systems from damage and theft of hardware, software, electronic data, and curtailing disruption of the services they provide. The importance of robust cybersecurity continues to increase as the world becomes more technologically reliant on computers, mobile devices, Wi-Fi, wireless networks, smart devices, the Internet of Things (IoT), and related technologies due to their susceptibility to security breaches and hacks.
In DFINITY’s Internet Computer, cycles power smart contract computations (referred to as software canister computations) to execute actions on the Internet Computer Protocol (ICP). The cost of computations is expressed in units of cycles that are equivalent to gas within the Ethereum network. Cycles represent the actual cost of operations such as physical hardware, energy storage devices, and network bandwidth.
The cypherpunk movement includes individuals (cypherpunks) and entities who generally advocate the widespread use of cryptography, blockchain, and related privacy-preserving technologies as a means for engendering social and political change. The movement began through communication on a mailing list in the late 1980s, which discussed cryptography, encryption, privacy, and security as means of empowering society on a far-reaching scale. The cypherpunk community represented some of the earliest adopters of Bitcoin in the late 2000s and early 2010s.